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THE BIPERIODIC TABLE OF GENETIC CODE
AND NUMBER OF PROTONS
 
 

S.V.Petoukhov
 
 

Department of Biomechanics,
Mechanical Engineering Research Institute,
Russian Academy of Sciences.
2001, Moscow







The book contains 258 pages, 34 drawings, 39 tables,  
136 bibliographic sources cited (in Russian).

State registration of the book was made in  
“Russian Book Chamber”.
 
 

DESCRIPTION:

The biological evolution can be interpreted as process of deployment and duplicating of the certain forms of ordering. Many aspects of biological self-organizing at all levels - from macromolecules up to organisms - are connected to their existence. The phenomenon of left-right dissymmetry in living substance is one of known examples of realization of such special forms of ordering. The investigation of these forms in biological systems is represented by a one of major tasks in biology. In particular, the experience of molecular genetics testifies that through disclosing of special kinds of ordering (such as, say, a complementary of pairs of the nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA or the structure of a double spiral of DNA) is possible to ensure significant progress in a science about living nature.

The present book is devoted to revealing of the important forms of ordering in the system of genetic coding. These forms are connected with symmetries and anti-symmetries in the system.  There are a natural ordering in the set of 64 genetic triplets and peculiarities of nitrogenous bases at the center of attention. The reason of this attention is that the set of 64 codons and the set of nitrogenous bases of the code are universal for living organisms. They have a basic value in a role of biological invariants of systems of the hereditary information.

Having advanced in understanding of structurally functional features of base systems of genetic coding, mankind extracts simultaneously an opportunity to advance in different areas of biology, which are built in the consent with these base systems. The structured set of triplets, allowing construction the Biperiodic table of genetic code, seems to be a generator of order on more high levels of genetic system in many respects.

The natural technology of genetic coding is major and most effective  technology ensuring life on our planet. And acquirement of this technology, occurring in modern time, is major moment in evolution of mankind.

To the basic results of researches, which are described in this book, the author carries the following:

          1. Revelation of natural ordering and profound structurization in the system of 64 triplets, allowing, in particular, to number all triplets by numbers from 0 up to 63 on the basis of their biochemical peculiarities.

          2. Construction of the Biperiodic table of triplets and its three-dimensional model    analogue reflecting existence of the new forms of orderins in living substance and subordination of biochemical system of genetic coding to some principles of algebraic structurization.

          3. The results of the system analysis of this Table for cases of different numerical attributes of nitrogenous bases.

          4. Revelation of the important role of a property of amino mutation of nitrogenous bases of a code for natural ordering of set of codons.

          5. The results of the analysis of an "ideal" vertebrate mitochondrial code from a position of the Biperiodic table for different types of amino acids and punctuation signs. Introduction of new notions ("white" and "black" triplets and amino acids, octal and not octal amino acids, etc.) which are necessary for fixing and research of profound structurization of genetic system.

          6. Development of the concept of poly-languages of the DNA and RNA sequences (or poly-alphabet of system of nitrogenous bases of a code).

          7. Revelation of new structural connections between subsystems of different levels in uniform system of genetic coding.

          8. The results of the primary comparative analysis of a sequence of triplets in the genes of the elementary protein - insulin - from a position of the Biperiodic table of a code.

          9. The results of the primary comparative analysis of various evolutionary variants of a genetic code from a position of the Biperiodic table of a code. The prediction of peculiarities of those natural variants of a code, that can be revealed in the future.

10. Revelation of a phenomenology of proton-numerical modules.

         11. Revelation of the new facts of manifestation of symmetries and anti-symmetries in a phenomenology of living systems.

         12. An establishment of the analogies between the Biperiodic table of genetic code and symbolic systems of Ancient Chinese "The Book of changes ". Detection that "natural" principles of structurizations, described in this "Book", are surprisingly close to those principles of structurization, with which the biochemical system of genetic coding is subordinated.

The direction of researches, described in the book, progresses quickly. 

 




 

CONTENTS:




FOREWORD  (by Academician K.V.Frolov)

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1.

THE BIPERIODIC TABLE OF THE SYSTEM OF ELEMENTS OF GENETIC CODE

1.1. Initial data on a genetic code 

1.2. The principles of tabular ordering of set of triplets. Biochemical realization of this principle

1.3. Primary analysis of the Biperiodic table of genetic code and its kinds of periodicity

1.4. System properties of numbers of hydrogen bonds of the triplets in the Table

1.5. Visualization of numerical symbols in a mosaic of the Table

1.6. Visualization of a symbol of buddhistic cross in a mosaic of the Table

1.7. System properties of set of atoms of nitrogenous bases of triplets in the Table

1.8. System properties of set of rings of nitrogenous bases of triplets in the Table

1.9. Three-dimensional model-analogue of the Biperiodic table of genetic code. Harmony of genetic cubes

1.10. Discussion
 

Chapter 2.

AMINO ACIDS AND THEIR ARRANGEMENT IN BIPERIODIC TABLE OF GENETIC CODE

2.1. About evolutionary variants of genetic coding of amino acids

2.2. Arrangement of amino acids  in the Biperioduc table of genetic code for an "ideal" vertebrate mitochondrial code

2.3. Black-and-white mosaic of the Table or " a chess board " of a genetic code

2.4. Tabular mosaic and family of genetic cubes

2.5. Distribution of replaceable and irreplaceable amino acids in the Table
 

Chapter 3.

NUMBER Of  PROTONS AND PROTON-NUMERICAL REPRESENTATION OF MOLECULAR ELEMENTS

3.1. About the reasons of initial interest to number of protons

3.2. Sum of protons in amino acids. Octal and not octal  amino acids

3.3. The proton-numerical representation of a structure of molecular elements

3.4. Discussion
 

Chapter 4.

THE PRIMARY ANALYSIS OF GENES AND EVOLUTIONARY VARIATIONS OF
A GENETIC CODE FROM A VIEWPOINT OF THE BIPERIODIC TABLE

4.1. Primary analysis of a sequence of triplets in a gene of insulin

4.2. Primary analysis of evolutionary variants of a genetic code
 

Chapter 5.

BIOLOGICAL CODE AND ANCIENT CHINESE "THE BOOK OF CHANGES"

5.1. Brief information about "The Book of Changes " (“I Ching”)

5.2. About a history of attempts of study of genetic code from a viewpoint of "The Book of Changes "

5.3. " The Book of Changes " and the Biperiodic table of a genetic code
 

Chapter 6.

ABOUT PROBABLE VALUE OF THE RECEIVED RESULTS FOR VARIOUS FIELDS OF SCIENCE AND CULTURE

6.1. Genetic code and linguistics

6.2. Genetic code and music

6.3. About genetic code and archetypes of physiological systems

6.3. About a nature of a genetic code and problem of geometrization of biology
 

THE CONCLUSION

THE NOTES

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

FOR SPONSORS

SUMMARY IN ENGLISH

LITERATURE
 
 




WHERE TO ORDER:

Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4, Malii Hariton’evskii pereulok, Moscow, Centre, 101830, Russia.

Fax: (095)-243-4983

E-mail: petoukhov@hotmail.com
 
 


AUTHOR:

Petoukhov Sergei V. – Doctor of Phys.-Math. Sciences, Candidate of Biological Sciences, State Prize Award, Academician of the Academy of Problems of Quality.

He is a specialist in theoretical and mathematical biology, theories of symmetry and self-organization, biomechanics, physiology, crystallography. 
 
 

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